Beyond the single deterministic factor of safety!
2D and 3D Limit equilibrium (LE) slope stability analysis methods are typically combined with global search methods to locate a single critical slip surface, which corresponds to the minimum factor of safety for a topographical model. However, there often exist multiple modes of failure with similar factors of safety within the topography. In such cases, it is necessary to consider multiple slip surfaces in the design process rather than just a single surface. To achieve such a goal, two different methods are proposed: 1) Multiple-Modal Optimization technique (MMO), and 2) probabilistic analysis with stochastic response surfaces (SRS).